Immunotherapy Epidemiology

  • Immune check point inhibitors are considered to be the most important breakthrough in cancer treatment in the past decade1
  • Since 2010, new immunotherapies (not linked to cytokines) such as sipuleucet-T, ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab and atezolizumab have gained indications for prostate cancer, melanoma, NSCLC and bladder cancer2
  • The most advanced immunotherapies available for cancer treatment include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-antigen 4 inhibitors (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein inhibitors (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 inhibitors (PD-L1)3
  • Response criteria for clinical trials evaluating immunotherapies for cancer are still under discussion, a recent study of European oncologists revealed less than 50% of the oncologists surveyed reported understanding immune related response criteria and their relevance to cancer immunotherapy4


  1. Abdel-Rahman O, ElHalawani H, Fouad M. Risk of cutaneous toxicities in patients with solid tumors treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: a meta-analysis. Future Oncol. 2015;11(17):2471-2484.
  2. Pennell NA. Understanding the Rationale for Immunotherapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Semin Oncol. 2015 Oct;42(Suppl 2):S3-S10.
  3. Garon EB. Current Perspectives in Immunotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Semin Oncol. 2015;42(Suppl 2):S11-S18.
  4. Borrello IM, Schaffer MM, Roehrl E, et al. Identification of differences in immunotherapy knowledge and practice patterns among oncologists from six European countries. Mol Clin Oncol 2014;2:269–74